What Is Finance? What Are The Types of Finance?

Well, there is different evidence that shows the origin of finance is as old as human life on our planet. Moreover, finance is a French term. It was used by the English in the eighteenth century. It refers to the management of money. Similarly, finance is still in use all over the world. It is gaining popularity day by day. Also, lots of students want to make a career in it. If you are also one of them, you must know about finance and the different types of finance.

Yes, this is true. It is essential to have a basic knowledge of finance at any age. Moreover, a firm cannot work properly without proper financing and financial strategy. It helps businesses with managing financial activities, avoiding bankruptcy, limiting risks, and maximizing returns on various investments.

However, finance is a vast subject that may be confusing at times. Therefore, to help you we are providing a guide on finance. In this guidance, we will discuss what finance is? Also, what are the several types of finance? So, keep scrolling to learn the basics of finance. Here we go!


Finance is a broad concept. It covers banking, debt, credit, capital markets, money, investments, etc.

However, in simple words, finance is the management of money and the act of getting sufficient finance. Money, banking, credit, investments, assets, and liabilities are all part of the financial system. Also, it is responsible for overseeing, creating, and studying them.

Microeconomic and macroeconomic theories are responsible for many of the basic principles in finance. The time value of money, which claims that a dollar now is worth more than a dollar in the future, is one of the most central concepts.

Key Points To Remember

  • Finance covers banking, credit, investments, formation, and management of financial institutions, etc.
  • Microeconomic and macroeconomic ideas support basic financial concepts.
  • Personal finance, corporate finance, and public (government) finance are the three primary types of finance.
  • Financial services are used by both consumers and corporations to get financial products and achieve financial targets.
  • The financial services sector contributes a lot to a country’s GDP.

Moving further, let’s discuss the different kinds of finance.

You May Also Like

Economics vs finance Degree: Which One is Best For You?

Types Of Finance

Generally, there are two forms of finance:

  • Debt Finance
  • Equity Finance

In addition, the other forms of finance are:

  • Public Finance
  • Personal Finance
  • Private Finance
  • Corporate Finance

Let’s discuss all these forms of finance in detail.

Debt Finance

The money you borrow to keep or manage your business is debt financing. Moreover, it does not give the moneylender ownership control. But, the borrower is responsible for repaying the principal amount as well as the interest rate. However, the interest rate is usually decided by the:

  • Loan Amount
  • Loan period
  • The Reason for Taking Out Any Type of Loan
  • Rate of Inflation

In addition, there are three types of debt finance. They are as follows:

  • Short-term
  • Medium-term
  • Long-term

Let’s discuss them in detail.

Short-Term Debt Finance

Short-term debt financing refers to loans that are needed for a period of 1 – 180 days. These loans are taken out to meet financial shortfalls as well as emergency or irregular needs.

Moreover, short-term financing is mostly necessary for day-to-day business operations. For example, paying employees’ paychecks or buying raw materials. The size of a short-term loan is mainly governed by other income sources for repayment. The most popular kind of short-term debt funding is lines of credit from a company’s suppliers.

In addition, other types of short-term finance include:

  • Trade Credit
  • Credit Cards
  • Bill Discounting
  • Bank Overdrafts
  • Working Capital Loans
  • Small Company Loans
  • Short-term Loans From Retail Banks
  • Client Advances

Medium-Term Debt Finance

Medium-term debt finance refers to loans that are required for a period of more than 180 – 365 days. The methods of using money generally depend on the kind of firm. Therefore, businesses generally repay the loan using cash flow from their operations. This is one of the types of finance that helps businesses to purchase equipment, fixed assets, etc.

Small company owners and startups can use medium-term loan financing to fulfill the fund’s cycle needs. Because all vital supplies must be paid for in advance by new businesses. For example, purchasing equipment, machinery, and inventory.

Moreover, there are different forms of medium-term debt finance. They are:

  • Hire Purchase Financing
  • Lease Financing
  • Medium-Term Commercial Bank Loans
  • Bond/Debenture Issuance

Long-Term Debt Finance

Long-term debt financing is usually needed for a duration of more than 365 days. This type of financing helps the firm to purchase equipment, and land, restructure offices or buildings, etc. The interest rate on long-term debt is lower than that on short-term debt. The payback period for this debt financing is commonly 5, 10, or 20 years.

Moreover, this long-term financing will take the form of car loans or housing loans. Also, it includes the issuance of:

  • Bonds/Debentures
  • Preference Shares
  • Equity Shares
  • Long-term loans from the government
  • Financial Service Institutions
  • Investment Banks
  • Venture Capital
  • Cash from investors

Equity Finance

Equity financing is a traditional method of getting funds for a firm by issuing or selling stock. One of the most important differences between equity and debt financing is this. Also, this types of finance help to start new enterprises and businesses. 

Moreover, equity capital is often raised by issuing or selling equity shares in a company. Each share is simply an owner’s unit for that specific firm. For example, suppose the corporation has issued 10,000 stock shares to the general public. When an investor purchases 1000 equity shares in a firm, he or she owns 10% of the company.

Public Finance

Public finance is the study of the state’s expenditures and revenues. It mainly covers the finances of the government. Moreover, the scope of public finance is the collection of funds, and their distribution among various sectors of state operations is regarded as vital responsibilities or duties of the government.

In addition, there are three different categories of public finance:

  • Public Debt 
  • Also, Public Expenditure 
  • Public Revenues

Let’s discuss them in detail.

Public Debt

The term “public debt” refers to loans taken out to raise cash for the government. It comes with a payback responsibility to individuals with interest.

Public Expenditure

It is the expenses incurred by the government for the care, safety, and protection of the economy, society, and nation.

Public Revenue

It refers to all receipts and money that the government collects during a certain time, regardless of its type or source. Also, it will include any government-issued loans. It will only cover revenue resources’ income. For example, taxes, prices, fees, penalties, fines, gifts, etc.

Personal Finance

This is another one of the types of finance. Personal finance refers to the use of financial concepts in a family’s or individual’s financial decisions. It covers how families or individuals collect, budget, spend, and save monetary resources through time.

Moreover, planning, implementing, and monitoring financial activities that benefit people are part of personal finance. For example, earning money, spending money, saving and investing money, and borrowing money.

Corporate Finance

Corporate finance refers to the financial aspects of running a business. It is a department or division in charge of a company’s financial operations. Moreover, the basic goal of corporate finance is to maximize shareholder value through short- and long-term financial planning. Also, the implementation of various methods.

Private Finance

Private finance is a type of corporate financing. It helps a firm collect funds in a short amount of time to avoid financial trouble. Moreover, this strategy helps a firm that is not listed on a stock exchange. Also, that is unable to receive financing through such markets. A charitable organization can benefit from a private financial strategy.


What Is The Importance Of Finance In Your Business?

The following are the vital benefits of finance that a business can receive.

  • It assists small businesses in making important financial decisions.
  • Finance is responsible for allocating resources and managing cash flow in businesses.
  • It lets companies set long-term objectives. Also, it will allow them to expand and scale.
  • Finance assists firms in understanding the basics of the time value of money.

Final Words

To sum up, we have discussed the several main types of finance in the above blog. So, we can say that running a business without understanding finances is a huge risk. Poor financial management brings with it an insane amount of instability. Therefore, it will be bad for any organization. The good news is that you do not need a financial degree to learn. However, use and understand the concepts discussed in this blog. It will help you a lot.

Leave a Comment